Thursday, May 21, 2020
Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice follows Elizabeth Bennet, a spirited and clever young woman, as she and her sisters navigate romantic and social entanglements within 19th-century Englands country gentry. Chapters 1-12 The novel opens with Mrs. Bennet informing her husband that the nearby great house, Netherfield Park, has a new tenant: Mr. Bingley, a wealthy and unmarried young man. Mrs. Bennet is convinced that Mr. Bingley will fall in love with one of her daughtersÃ¢â¬âpreferably Jane, the eldest and by all accounts the kindest and most beautiful. Mr. Bennet reveals that he has already paid his respects to Mr. Bingley and that they all shall meet soon. At a neighborhood ball, Mr. Bingley makes his first appearance, along with his two sistersÃ¢â¬âthe married Mrs. Hurst and the unmarried CarolineÃ¢â¬âand his best friend, Mr. Darcy. While DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth makes him the subject of much gossip at the gathering, his brusque, arrogant manner quickly sours the whole company on him. Mr. Bingley shares a mutual and immediate attraction with Jane. Mr. Darcy, on the other hand, is not so impressed. He dismisses Janes younger sister Elizabeth as not pretty enough for him, which Elizabeth overhears. Although she laughs about it with her friend Charlotte Lucas, Elizabeth is wounded by the comment. Mr. Bingleys sisters invite Jane to visit them at Netherfield. Thanks to the machinations of Mrs. Bennet, Jane gets stuck there after journeying through a rainstorm and becomes ill. The Bingleys insist upon her staying until she is well, so Elizabeth goes to Netherfield to tend to Jane. During their stay, Mr. Darcy begins to develop a romantic interest in Elizabeth (much to his own annoyance), but Caroline Bingley is interested in Darcy for herself. Caroline is particularly irritated that the object of Darcys interest is Elizabeth, who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have equal wealth or social status. Caroline endeavors to eliminate Darcys interest in Elizabeth by speaking negatively about her. By the time the girls return home, ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s dislike for both Caroline and Darcy has only grown. Chapters 13-36 Mr. Collins, an obsequious pastor and distant relative, comes to visit the Bennets. Despite not being a close relation, Mr. Collins is the designated heir of the Bennets estate, as the Bennets have no sons. Mr. Collins informs the Bennets that he hopes to Ã¢â¬Å"make amendsÃ¢â¬ by marrying one of the daughters. Nudged by Mrs. Bennet, who is certain that Jane will soon be engaged, he sets his sights on Elizabeth. Elizabeth, however, has other ideas: namely George Wickham, a dashing militiaman who claims that Mr. Darcy cheated him out of a parsonage he had been promised by DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s father. Although Elizabeth dances with Darcy at the Netherfield ball, her loathing is unchanged. Meanwhile, Mr. Darcy and Caroline Bingley convince Mr. Bingley that Jane does not return his affections and encourage him to leave for London. Mr. Collins proposes to a horrified Elizabeth, who rejects him. On the rebound, Mr. Collins proposes to Elizabeths friend Charlotte. Charlotte, who is worried about getting older and becoming a burden on her parents, accepts the proposal. The following spring, Elizabeth goes to visit the Collinses at CharlotteÃ¢â¬â¢s request. Mr. Collins brags about the patronage of the nearby great lady, Lady Catherine de BourghÃ¢â¬âwho also happens to be Mr. DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s aunt. Lady Catherine invites their group to her estate, Rosings, for dinner, where Elizabeth is shocked to find Mr. Darcy and his cousin, Colonel Fitzwilliam. ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s unwillingness to answer Lady CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s prying questions does not make a good impression, but Elizabeth learns two important pieces of imformation: Lady Catherine intends to make a match between her sickly daughter Anne and her nephew Darcy, and Darcy has mentioned saving a friend from an ill-advised matchÃ¢â¬âthat is, Bingley and Jane. Much to Elizabeths shock and fury, Darcy proposes to her. During the proposal, he cites all the obstaclesÃ¢â¬ânamely, Elizabeths inferior status and familyÃ¢â¬âthat his love has overcome. Elizabeth refuses him and accuses him of ruining both JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness and WickhamÃ¢â¬â¢s livelihood. The following day, Darcy gives Elizabeth a letter containing his side of the story. The letter explains that he genuinely believed Jane to be less in love with Bingley than he was with her (though her family and status did play a role, he admits apologetically). More importantly, Darcy reveals the truth of his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s history with Wickham. Wickham was a favorite of DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s father, who left him a Ã¢â¬Å"livingÃ¢â¬ (a church posting on an estate) in his will. Instead of accepting the inheritance, Wickham insisted that Darcy pay him the value in money, spent it all, came back for more, and, when Darcy refused, tried to seduce Georgiana, DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s teenage sister. These discoveries shake Elizabeth, and she realizes that her prized powers of observation and judgment did not prove correct. Chapters 37-61 Months later, ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s aunt and uncle, the Gardiners, offer to bring her along on a trip. They end up touring Pemberley, Mr. Darcys home, but are assured that he is away from home by the housekeeper, who has nothing but praise for him. Darcy makes an appearance, and despite the awkwardness of the encounter, he is kind to Elizabeth and the Gardiners. He invites Elizabeth to meet his sister, who is excited to meet her. Their pleasant encounters are short-lived, as Elizabeth receives news that her sister Lydia has eloped with Mr. Wickham. She hurries home, and Mr. Gardiner tries to assist Mr. Bennet in tracking the couple down. News soon arrives that they have been found and are to be married. Everyone assumes that Mr. Gardiner paid Wickham off to marry Lydia instead of abandoning her. When Lydia returns home, however, she lets slip that Mr. Darcy was at the wedding. Mrs. Gardiner later writes to Elizabeth and reveals that it was Mr. Darcy who paid off Wickham and made the match. Mr. Bingley and Mr. Darcy return to Netherfield and pay a call on the Bennets. At first, they are awkward and leave quickly, but then return almost immediately, and Bingley proposes to Jane. The Bennets receive another unexpected visitor in the middle of the night: Lady Catherine, who has heard a rumor that Elizabeth is engaged to Darcy and demands to hear that it is not true and never will be true. Insulted, Elizabeth refuses to acquiesce, and Lady Catherine leaves in a huff. Rather than stopping the match, Lady CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s escapade has the opposite effect. Darcy takes Elizabeths refusal to acquiesce as a sign that she might have changed her mind about his proposal. He proposes again, and this time Elizabeth accepts as they discuss the mistakes that finally got them to this point. Mr. Darcy asks Mr. BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s permission for the marriage, and Mr. Bennet gives it willingly once Elizabeth reveals to him the truth of DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement with LydiaÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage and of her own changed feelings for him.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Non- Renewable Energy These energy sources are very efficient in the way they work and provide for our needs. Unfortunately, there are two immense disadvantages for fossil fuels and non-renewable resources. They are named non renewable for a reason, the process that these resources go through literally takes millions of years for them to be useful for our needs. Ã¢â¬Å"We have to recognize there is a finite planetary quantity of each nonrenewable resource that can be recovered economically. In theory, it is possible to calculate when the world will run out of a particular resourceÃ¢â¬ (Fred Magdoff 2013). These resources are also not eco-friendly and are the main factor of many problems arising such as global warming which threatens the human race. Some examples include Metal ores, minerals, oils, and gas. Renewable Energy Sources As the human race is becoming desperate there are four alternative energy sources that can solve the predicament that we are in. Alternative energy resources have the advantage of being available very often with no risk of scarcity. Nuclear, Solar, Wind, and Hydroelectric energy sources are considered to be the four major resources that can replace fossil fuels. Ã¢â¬Å"There are currently approximately 7 billion people in the world and, given current trends, the population is expected to be around 9 billion in 2050, and over 10 billion by 2100Ã¢â¬ (Fred Magdoff 2013). Alternative energy sources are termed renewable because they can be continually replenishedShow MoreRelatedAlternative Energy Sources For Renewable Energy1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconcern for our environment, alternative energy has become a source of energy that is an alternative to the problem that these fossil fuels have caused our Earth. Alternative energy are renewable and is considered to be free energy source s (Alternative Energy). All alternative energy sources have lower carbon emissions when being compared to conventional energy sources. These sources include Biomass Energy, Wind, Solar, Geothermal, and Hydroelectric Energy (Alternative Energy). With the use of recyclingRead MoreAlternative Energy Sources For Renewable Energy1511 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRenewable energy has become a widely popular topic in society. With the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, scientist are looking to natural and renewable resources to create a means to produce sustainable energy. There are many alternative energy sources that have proven useful in the past couple of years. Some of the alternative energy sources are not only more useful than others but have proven to be easier to attain and also prove to create a more substantial amount of energy. Today, the most widelyRead MoreAlternative Energy For Renewable Energy Sources3426 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesworld has depended on one form of energy for transpo rtation, and that is fossil fuels. This means as our demand for these fossil fuels increases our supply will decrease dramatically. As supply dwindles and costs rise, nations will be forced to utilize alternative energy sources. Coal, both non-renewable and environmentally destructive, is the most likely near-term candidate for replacing oil as a primary energy source. In order to achieve a secure and stable energy supply that does not cause environmentalRead MoreAlternative Sources Of Energy For Renewable Energy1766 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAbstract Majority of electricity generated in New Zealand are mainly from renewable source of energy that are naturally occurring. These source of energy are not consumed when converted hence they will not be depleted, and they are constantly reusable and replenish naturally. Increase in research and investment toward renewable energy will benefit New Zealand society as it will generate less pollution, and more jobs opportunities will emerge. Furthermore it will benefit New Zealand by reinforcingRead MoreAlternative Energy Sources For Renewable Energy1466 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesseeking new forms of energy that will provide clean energy and also preserve Earth s lifespan. The use of renewable and non-renewable resources has been a major controversy throughout history; renewable energy such as wind power has been the main focus of this issue. Many would believe wind energy is the best renewable power source because it is the cleanest and most efficient, whereas, others view wind energy as a tim e bomb that will soon destroy the planet. Alternative energy sources should replaceRead MoreAlternative Energy Resources : Renewable Energy Source848 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAlternate energy resources are being developed to compete against the fossil fuel power stations. Fossil fuel such as coal and oil are drilled and shoveled out of the ground and then processed to be turned into electricity. Problems with fossil fuels are that they produce hazardous air emissions and give off by-products that will harm the area. Some well-known alternate renewable energy resources are wind, solar, and hydro power. These are all sources that are in abundance and will be around forRead MoreAlternative Sources of Renewable Energy Essay1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe need for energy is growing as well. We are accustomed to using fossil fuels as our central source of energy for everyday uses. Fossil fuels are a natural matter that is found in the ground of the Earth formed in a previous time period mil lions of years ago that are nonrenewable and are used for energy today. Fossil fuels have to be burned in order to produce energy. When nonrenewable resources have been used, they cannot restock themselves or ever be used again. Renewable energy is a supplyRead MoreAssess the Potential of Three Sources of Renewable Energy as Alternatives to Using Fossil Fuels in the Developing World1850 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesbecame the main source of energy. However, faced with the notable increase demand for energy, fossil fuel, as a non-renewable resource becomes scarcer and more expensive nowadays. To solve this problem, the world needs to replace fossil fuels with other sources of energy which are relatively low-cost and more secure. Renewable energy is such a potential energy. This essay will give an outline of three sources of renewable energy to be used in developing nations, which are solar energy, wind power andRead MoreRenewable Energy : The Beneficial Option For The Future !1227 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRenewable energy; the beneficial option for the future! The threat of global warming is influencing people to become Ã¢â¬Å"greener,Ã¢â¬ turning to renewable energy options which are often referred to as alternative energy. Renewable energy refers to energy that does not come from burning of fossil fuels or pollutant infused methods to provide energy. It is the harnessing of natural resources that are constantly renewable such as sunlight for solar panels and wind for wind turbines, just to name two (LambRead MoreNew And Alternative Sources Of Energy1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Today s society uses enormous amounts of energy. *The shadow of our presence on this planet is a result of generations upon generations of production and utilization of energy*. New and alternative sources of energy are being developed to replace the declining accessibility of coal and fossil fuels. Use of renewable energy is a key component in combatting the climate change that has become a major issue in the 21st century. Reducing our impact on the climate as a result of greenhouse gas emissions
string(175) " possibly the most important move for the disabled community, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 removed many physical and intellectual barriers to individuals with disabilities\." The first impression that the average person might have when reading about the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is that it appears to be greatly beneficial to Americans with disabilities. Certainly, it was intended to be of assistance to these individuals; however, a question remains regarding the degree of assistance that it provided to the, or if it was beneficial at all. The intention of the ADA was to open access to all aspects of society, to people with all kinds of disabilities. We will write a custom essay sample on The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or any similar topic only for you Order Now It was intended to prevent discrimination against individuals with disabilities in the same way that previous civil rights laws protected people from discrimination based on race or biological sex. The ADA is divided into five sections, called Ã¢â¬Å"titles. Ã¢â¬ These titles each address certain topics including various regulations for businesses and organizations of almost any size or purpose, requirements for communications over the telephone, and other provisions in terms of providing physical access, as well as other forms of access to the disabled population. Overall, the ADA does provide the valuable protections to many Americans. It allows individuals with disabilities to have access to education, employment, housing who may not have previously had opportunities in these areas. However, the ADA is not without its issues. The language of the ADA at times goes beyond regulating easily defined and delimited impairments that have objectively determined bases to protecting individuals defined as Ã¢â¬Å"impairedÃ¢â¬ merely because they are affected by peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of a condition or illness that they possess. The language of the ADA raises other issues as well, including the suggestions that the ADA is little more than an enforced quota system or that the measure Ã¢â¬Å"infantilizesÃ¢â¬ the individuals that it claims to protect. This paper will be used to summarize the ADA and describe its history, as well as some of its effects. Some of the individuals involved with ADA and its policymaking will be addressed. Finally, this paper will be used to discuss the assumptions and values inherent in the ADA and some recommendations for its change. The History of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 The ADA is a civil rights bill. When it passed into law on July 26, 1990 the people who wrote it expected that it would protect individuals with disabilities in the same manner that the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The ADA is divided into five sections, known as Ã¢â¬Å"titles. Ã¢â¬ These titles define, suggest, or regulate a number of different issues, including: 1. Equal employment opportunities 2. Access to public services overseen by state and local governments 3. Access to both publicly- and privately-run businesses for people with disabilities whenever possible 4. The availability of telephone and other voice communication services to the hearing impaired 5. Definitions of the breadth, depth, and limits of ADA protections and of limitations to state immunity, as well as describing technical assistance programs of importance to businesses (Eckert, 2003). Regardless of the size, all state and local governments fall under the provisions of the ADA. The provisions of the ADA also apply to all sizes of business, regardless of how many people are employed by those businesses. Certain exceptions are made, however, when compliance would cause undue hardship for the business that needs to make modifications. Before the 1960s, people with disabilities were often removed from the general population. Previous generations assumed that individuals with disabilities were Ã¢â¬Å"sufferingÃ¢â¬ due sins either they or their ancestors had committed. Children with disabilities were sent to separate schools from other children, if they were educated at all. The first attempts to care for American citizens with disabilities did not come until the nineteenth century, when life was a little easier and people were able to turn to doing charitable acts. These acts sprung from the community having a Ã¢â¬Å"humanitarian religious background that stressed the responsibility of the successful to help the unfortunateÃ¢â¬ (Rubin Roessler, 2001, p. 6). The first efforts made benefited individuals who were deaf or blind; only later were attempts made to assist individuals who were mentally retarded or mentally ill (Rubin Roessler, 2001, pp. 6-7). Regardless of these advances, new laws were passed in the second half of the nineteenth century that were based on the scientific theories of eugenics. These laws prohibited people with mental or emotional disabilities from marrying, among other things, to remove them from the gene pool (Rubin Roessler, 2001, pp. 15-18), eventually leading to individuals with disabilities being segregated, including segregation through special education and vocational education. Eventually, as expectations for social responsibility waned, the government took on the role of setting guidelines as to how people with disabilities were treated. Progress first came in terms of workerÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation laws and rehabilitation acts. The Depression slowed much of the progress being made in rehabilitation services, but eventually the improved economy resulted in the creation of a number of rehabilitation programs (Rubin Roessler, 2001, pp. 31-32). The period between 1954 and 1972 for that time to be called Ã¢â¬Å"The Golden Era of RehabilitationÃ¢â¬ due to all of the legislation enacted during this time (Rubin Roessler, 2001, p. 34). One of these pieces of legislation was the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1954, which authorized funding for vocational education and expanded services. In addition, amendments to the Social Security Act provided aid for individuals with disabilities (Rubin Roessler, 2001, pp. 33-36). Despite these efforts, individuals with disabilities still faced discrimination. Even the Civil Rights Act, passed in 1964, did not protect people with disabilities from discrimination. However, the Civil Rights Act was the first among this kind of legislation to formulate actual penalties against those states that did no enforce the Act. These penalties included Ã¢â¬Å"termination of financial assistance if states and communities receiving federal funds refuse to comply with federal desegregation ordersÃ¢â¬ (Rubin Roessler, 2001, p. 42). The Civil Rights Act, however, did provide the foundation for other legislation, such as the Architectural Barriers Act, passed in 1968. In what was quite possibly the most important move for the disabled community, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 removed many physical and intellectual barriers to individuals with disabilities. You read "The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990" in category "Papers" The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 was one of these acts of legislation. The ADA built upon previous acts by prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities, as described in an earlier section. The sociopolitical model came into being at about the same time the ADA was passed. As the medical model fell out of favor, having a disability was no longer considered a stigma and the isolation of individuals with disabilities was slowly put aside. Instead of seeking to segregate the disabled or trying to Ã¢â¬Å"fixÃ¢â¬ them, the new model is attempting to integrate them and bring equality to the disabled population. Individuals with disabilities were brought into the educational system and into the workforce and were perceived as equals perhaps for the first time in history. Both the ADA and the legislation that reauthorized its provisions addressed many areas of discrimination against individuals with disabilities. As part of this focus on discriminatory practices, Title I of the ADA addressed pre-employment testing and screening. According to Power (2000) the ADA Ã¢â¬Å"mandated when employment testing should be done, and described how testing must relate to the essential functions of the job (p. xiii). Testing accommodations under the ADA were divided into the categories of medium, time limits, and content (Power, 2000, p. xiii). These limits allowed more individuals with disabilities to have wider scope when taking pre-employment tests, permitting them to test in areas for which they may have previously been arbitrarily deemed unsuited. Positive and Negative Impacts of the ADA However, not all of the effects of this legislation were necessarily positive ones. The ADA undeniably fostered ill feelings in the American public, based on the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the ADA being nothing more than legislation that enforced quotas or as legislation that encouraged abuse through its widely inclusive language. This last perception was reinforced by the popular culture in the media, such as its mocking treatment in segments of the popular cartoons The Simpsons and King of the Hill. These two programs featured episodes in which characters deliberately abused the ADA, forcing situations by which they fit the apparently loose provisions of the act. In the mind of the public, Homer deliberately overeating to fit the definition of Ã¢â¬Å"morbid obesityÃ¢â¬ and the efforts of Hank HillÃ¢â¬â¢s co-workers to force various personal issues into compliance with the ADA provisions showed how the ADA could reinforce or even reward malingering. The King of the Hill episode took a sly jab in this vein at the ADA by its conclusion, which showed the entire office being Ã¢â¬Å"protectedÃ¢â¬ under the auspices of the ADA, with only the manager being held responsible for doing any work (Krieger, 2000, p. 20). The last scene of that particular King of the Hill episode may be of importance for several reasons. First, as already noted, it sends a subtle message to the American public, many of whom do not have informed opinions about the act, about the ADA. Second, as noted by Cary LaCheen, a parallel exists between the way that the media portrays the ADA and the manner upon which it is ruled in the courts (cited in Krieger, 2000, p. 25). Finally, this final scene might have played on fears that the American public had at the time of the Ã¢â¬Å"high levels of job instability and worker displacementÃ¢â¬ that characterized the then-current labor market and that potentially bred Ã¢â¬Å"insecurity, fear, and resentment toward employment protections extended to members of disadvantaged groups (Krieger, 2000, p. 28). While these publicly-held sentiments are not caused by the ADA itself, they are a response to the frequently vague and over-broad language and interpretations of the language of the act itself. Schwochau and Blanck (2000) suggest that the ADA has actually had a negative effect on the employment of people with disabilities or, at the very least, that the ADA has not created improved working conditions for individuals with disabilities. The authors indicate that at the time that their article was written the figures produced in the surveys provided by the National Organization on Disability actually reflected a decline in the number of such individuals who were employed (Schwochau Blanck, 2000, p. 271). The same surveys indicated that educational barriers still remain, with individuals with disabilities still obtaining unequal education despite being largely integrated into the general education population. However, the surveys indicated that there had been some increase in employment for severely disabled individuals (Schwochau Blanck, 2000, p. 271). Two interesting and potentially disturbing aspects exist in the ADA legislation. One such aspect is that it legislates peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions; that is, if the perceptions of others cause a person to be perceived as disabled, then that person is protected under the provisions of the ADA (Boyd, 2002, p. 2). Boyd (2002) lists HIV status, disfiguring facial scars, and morbid obesity as three such perceived disabilities (p. 2). Another difficult aspect is that the ADA, intended to prevent discrimination, is discriminatory in and of itself. It does not recognize the rights of all individuals with disabilities; rather, it recognizes the rights of only those individuals whose disabilities meet the statutory definition of disability (Colker, date, p. 98). While the drafters of this act chose to use longstanding definitions of certain disabilities, adopting some definitions from Section 504 from the Rehabilitation Act, it is clear from the above paragraph that these definitions contain some gray areas. Because individuals who do not meet these defined limits are not covered by the ADA, people who lack disabilities are unable to bring reverse discrimination suits or otherwise Ã¢â¬Å"challenge favorable treatment of individuals with disabilitiesÃ¢â¬ (Colker, date, p. 98). This narrow concept of who is covered by the ADA also has the potential to create a type of affirmative action program for individuals with disabilities (Colker, date, p. 98). Previous incarnations of affirmative action programs have not been effective for those individuals they allegedly protected. Rather, there has been some argument that affirmative action programs that emphasize the Ã¢â¬Å"needsÃ¢â¬ rather than the Ã¢â¬Å"rightsÃ¢â¬ of certain groups actually Ã¢â¬Å"infantilizeÃ¢â¬ those individuals (Burke, 1997, p. 271). Who is Involved in the Debate? The debate on the ADA is widespread and covers many areas of society. On the one hand, the National Organization on Disability and other similar groups stand in advocacy of individuals with disabilities. Educators at all levels have also taken up the banner of accessibility and inclusion. Economists, on the other hand, appear to be arguing that the ADA is not as beneficial as it was once thought it could be. Regardless of these positions, however, the influence of the ADA continues to be debated. One source of current debate comes from the technology sector. Because the ADA grants equal access to individuals with disabilities, one question that currently exists is whether or not this guarantee of access extends to commercial and private websites (National Council on Disability, 2003, par. 1). This debate extends from Title 3 of the ADA and the definition of the word Ã¢â¬Å"placeÃ¢â¬ as used in that title. If individuals with disabilities are unable to access these site through electronic aids such as synthetic speech or Braille outputs, are the parties who run these sites liable to provide them access (National Council on Disability, 2003, par. 12). Although a great deal of the access issue can be resolved with a small amount of additional programming effort, how far is it necessary to go to be in compliance with the ADAÃ¢â¬âor does it extend at all to the Internet? Although the answer to this question has been ruled as Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ in the past, advocacy groups continue to argue that the provisions of the ADA cover more than just physical spaces. One perception of the ADA is that the law Ã¢â¬Å"forcesÃ¢â¬ equality by requiring employers to treat individuals with disabilities differently to permit them to function as other employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ equals. However, as Schwochau and Blanck (2000) points out, companies are already in the position of purchasing equipment by which employees can perform their jobs in an equitable fashion. Purchasing a piece of equipment that enables an individual with a disability to do his or her job should be considered Ã¢â¬Å"no more than standard practiceÃ¢â¬ (p. 312). However, the cost of the accommodations that required by the ADA may outweigh the benefits to the employer, Ã¢â¬Å"resulting in market inefficiencies and welfare lossesÃ¢â¬ (Schwochau, Blanck, 2000, p. 308). The primary assumption of the ADA appears to be that a person with a disability is as capable as any other worker might be, given the chance. The National Organization on Disability (NOD) paints a rosy picture of this assumption, reminding employers that among other things: o Hiring individuals with disabilities eases concern over the labor supply o Job performance ratings and retention rates for individuals with disabilities are equal to or higher than for other workers, while at the same time exhibiting lower absenteeism rates o Tax benefits are available to companies that hire individuals with disabilities (National Organization on Disability Website) However, these assumptions may not be as widespread in practice as they are in discussion. According to Maheady and Fleming (2005) it is common for nurse educators and facility administrators to Ã¢â¬Å"voice concerns and hold preconceived notions of success or failure before the student [with a disability] even steps on their floorÃ¢â¬ (p. 52). These concerns and notions include the accommodations that will need to be made and the issue of patient safety (Maheady Fleming, 2005, p. 52). Recommendations and Rationale for Change One potentially helpful change would be to change the language of the ADA, particularly the language concerning the terms Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable accommodationÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"undue hardship,Ã¢â¬ as well as the language that defines disabilities. The language currently in use in these areas of the ADA is both vague and broad in its application. As shown by the exaggerated situations used to comedic effect by the television programs described above, the vague definitions of these terms are open to abuse. If it is reasonable for a person to provide assistance for a person with a hearing impairment to use the telephone, why would it be unreasonable to provide the addict depicted in the King of the Hill episode with lowered lights and a quiet environment? At what point does Ã¢â¬Å"undue hardshipÃ¢â¬ begin if there is no financial cost to the business? When does the Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable accommodationÃ¢â¬ for one worker begin to impose on another if that imposition is not defined by physical space? In many cases, however, this episode demonstrates the opposite of how individuals with disabilities are treated. Rather than making an extra effort to comply with the reasonable accommodation aspect of the ADA, employers seek to avoid making changes in the workplace. However, individuals with disabilities would often stay in the workforce longer if they would get accommodation. Ultimately, changing the language of the ADA to reflect making these accommodations would save the government money in the long run, by removing people from the welfare rolls, which, ultimately, would serve the public goodÃ¢â¬âand would serve businessÃ¢â¬âby avoiding higher taxes. Another limitation of the ADA is its lack of precision in matters of Internet access. The ADA is legislation of the 1990s; new concerns now exist in terms of online communication that might be addressed by a modified ADA. Although computers were online to a certain extent when the ADA was compiled, the Internet has become far more pervasive since that time. Technology does exist that enables individuals with hearing or visual impairments to use the Internet; however, what is the obligation to the employer to provide this costly equipment to a single employee? Would a refusal to provide this equipment be covered by the Ã¢â¬Å"undue hardshipÃ¢â¬ area of the ADA, or would it constitute discrimination. Without an update to the language of the ADA, situations created by current and future technology will remain unaddressed. Rather than rely on the input of a small selection of interest groups, it would seem wise to widen the scope of information gathering for these proposed modifications. Community seminars could be used to form local focus groups, which in turn could produce reports to be compiled into a block of regional or nationwide research. These seminars would have the beneficial side effects of informing the public and enabling them to feel empowered as they provide their input on something that has an effect on their working lives. At the same time, these focus groups could serve to change the opinion of the public about individuals with disabilities, as some people in the general public have the impression that members of the disabled population do not want to work. In addition to these focus groups, councils formed by those individuals who work with the disabled community and members of the business community might be established to discuss and define an alternative to the terms Ã¢â¬Å"undue hardshipÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable accommodation. Ã¢â¬ These and other questions should be addressed to improve both public perception of the ADA and its application in the business world Finally, changes could also be made to the ADA in terms of defining disability. Public perception of a person with a disability is that of a person in a wheelchair. This stereotyped perception leads to wheelchair ramps being installed outside of public buildings, such as schools, or even outside of some privately owned business and retail stores. However, not all disabilities are visible. Some individuals have disabilities related to heart disease or immunodeficiency diseases. These individuals often have difficulty breathing or lack energy and lack the ability to climb stairs. Their only alternative in these situations is that of walking long distances through these ramps, which may actually aggravate the conditions that they possess. By creating a more inclusive list of disabilities and their definitions that is reflective of these hidden and unfamiliar conditions, more appropriate accommodations might become more available to a greater portion of the disabled community. Conclusion Throughout the history of the profession, social workers have been involved in seeking social equality and social justice for people caught in an unequal and often unfair system. Within this role, social workers have often actively participated in the political process. Therefore, social workers have an obligation to lobby local, state, and even federal legislatures to pass laws that grant businesses money to make the specific accommodations required by people with disabilities. Some funding already exists; however, it does not meet the needs of either individuals with disabilities or of the businesses seeking to accommodate them. The ADA created a new realm of opportunity for individuals with disabilities. However, while well intentioned, some of the aspects of the ADA are problematic. Economic results do not reflect the predictions made by the supporters of the bill before it passed into law. In addition, some areas of the ADA are in need of modification to reflect todayÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns. Although the ADA is a stride in the right direction for individuals with disabilities, the journey toward equal rights and access for these individuals remains a long one. In truth, the ADA should not be considered a finished product, neither now or in the future. As society changes and the use of technology grows, the ADA will need to be redesigned and redefined to take these changes into consideration. The future of the United States is formed by the future of its people, no matter who they are or what their abilities might be. For that reason, the ADA as it exists now should be considered the starting point, not the ending point, for this piece of legislation. References Boyd, S. (2002). Americans with Disabilities Act: How this act affects you and your business. Heritage, 6(3). http://bus. cba. utulsa. edu/buslaw/Articles/Americans%20With%20Disabilities%20Act. pdf Burke, T. F. (1997). On the rights track: The Americans with disabilities act. Comparative Disadvantages? Social Regulations and the Global Economy, Pietro S. Nivlola, Ed. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. 242-318. http://bus. cba. utulsa. edu/buslaw/Articles/Americans%20With%20Disabilities%20Act. pdf Colker, R. (2005). The disability pendulum: The first decade of the Americans with Disabilities Act. New York: New York University. Eckert, J. M. (2003). People with disabilities, employment, the workplace: A ready-reference guide for Illinois Businesses. Chicago: Statewide Independent Living Council of Illinois. Krieger, L. (2000). Backlash against the Americans with Disabilities Act: Interdisciplinary perspectives and implications for social justice strategies. Boalt Working Papers in Public Law. Retrieved 13 May 2007 from http://repositories. cdlib. org/cgi/viewcontent. cgi? article=1089context=boaltwp Maheady, D. C. , Fleming, S. E. (2005, Summer). Nursing with the hand you are given. Minority Nurse. 50-54. National Council on Disability (2003). When the Americans with Disabilities Act goes online: Application of the ADA to the Internet and the Worldwide Web. http://www. ncd. gov/newsroom/publications/2003/adainternet. htm National Organization on Disability. (2001). The top 10 reasons to hire People with disabilities. http://www. nod. org/index. cfm? fuseaction=page. viewPagepageID=1430nodeID=1FeatureID=253redirected=1CFID=13076268CFTOKEN=7389169 Power, P. W. (2000). A guide to vocational assessment. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Rubin, S. E. , Roessler, R. T. (2001). Foundations of the vocational rehabilitation process. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Schwochau, S. , Blanck, P. D. (2000). The economics of the Americans with Disabilities Act, Part III: Does the ADA disable the disabled? Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law, 21: 271-313. Retrieved 10 May 2007 from http://www. boalt. org/BJELL/21-1/21-1-271. pdf How to cite The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
SEO title: The Great Gatsby - book summary.H1: Plot and synopsis of the novel. A novel The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is one of the most widespread books nowadays. The Great Gatsby summary is very intriguing, unexpected and attractive. In this article, we want to provide you with an overview of a summary of The Great Gatsby, so just read on to get the best book report. The book is about the native of North Dakota, the son of a poor loser farmer, James Goetz, who, according to the author, invented himself to Jack Gatsby in full accordance with the tastes and notions of a seventeen-year-old boy and remained true to this fictional end. Jay is a typical American dreamer, who has set the goal of life - to find success, wealth, fame and love. Having found a strong enthusiasm in his early adolescence in the face of someone else luxury, he swears sooner or later to achieve the same. Another dream of his life was the conquer an aristocrat girl, Daisy. Inspired by the love for the beautiful lady, he decides to devote his life to the acquisition of Daisy's heart. Daisy lives in the area of East Egg; she is married to the wealthy man, named Tom Buchanan. Tom studied with Nick in Yale, and he rebuked his wife without considering that it's necessary to hide Nick from his connection with Myrtle Wilson, whose husband owned a car repair station and a gas station. Changing his usual name to a first-line character, Jay Gatsby, he turns into a thriving businessman with supposedly Oxford education and comes to the noisy New York. There, his immortal worship of wealth is a quick success, the embodiment of which is the pompous palace of a villa in the prestigious area of Long Island and the grandiose triumphs - a feast held by Gatsby for local celebrities. It's naive to dream of becoming a parable in the tongues, Gatsby takes on a halo of romantic mystery and organizes numerous parties. It's no coincidence that the friends dissolve him about the gossip as if he was a nephew of Hindenburg, a German spy, and even a runaway murderer (in this sense, demonic Gatsby paradoxically converges with Chichikov by Gogol, about which the inhabitants of the city dissolve similar fantastic rumors). Book summary provides us with the information that in autumn 1917 Daisy and the young lieutenant Gatsby loved each other. He was sent to Europe, and she married Tom Buchanan. She didn't want to get married, and she throws a pearl necklace in a trash can - a gift from a groom for three hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Having a letter in one hand, and a bottle of alcohol in another, the girl asked not to marry her, but the wedding took place anyway. Jordan Bakeris Daisy Buchanan's long-time friend with autumn-leaf yellow hair, a firm athletic body, and an aloof attitude. No one suspects that the broad gestures of the eccentric richness have a single goal - to draw Daisies' attention. According to the plot, the beautiful lady of the young Gatsby is the wife of h is closest neighbor, Tom Buchanan. In the end, the hero strives for her and captures Daisy just as he has acquired a magnificent villa along the coast, an elegant car, and a trendy wardrobe. The finale of a swift takeover of the hero to wealth, fame and happiness is meaningless and tragic: his death comes mistakenly by the jealous mistress of Tom Buchanan.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Judaism Essays Judaism Paper Judaism Paper Judaism Name: Institution: Instructor: Course: Date: Section A The three people who have the main covenant are: Noah Abraham Moses Section B Every individual has a social responsibility towards other members of the society. The books of Deuteronomy, Exodus and Numbers give the guidelines that ought to govern manÃ¢â¬â¢s social relations. The social themes addressed are like those of equality, compassion, integrity, forgiveness and love. I believe that society has implicit rules that demand coexistence from the members of the society. There are particular pillars that enable the society to exist. These pillars are like those of love, compassion and equality. In my opinion, these pillars are similar to the moral virtues of Judaism. Equality is a core value that will promote harmony in the society. I believe that every individual is equal. This is by the virtue of them being human. Social status should not be the yardstick used to determine how individuals are treated. The moral attitude of Judaism encourages that our acts be governed by equality. The modern day society is dominated by biased attitudes. The wealthy members of the society receive better treatment and services. I believe that they are treated this way because of the influence they have. Integrity in the society is a sign of high levels of morality. The books of Torah talk about lending money to the poor without charging them interest and not hording the wages of a labour. Judaism upholds the virtue of being honest in ones actions. I. believe that these practices are seen as idealistic in the modern society. They are not a reflection of how social relations are governed today. Section C I find that the Jews had very high expectations of the Messiah. According to them, the expected Messiah was to save them from the political oppression that they had been subjected to by the Romans. I, however, feel that too much emphasis was laid on the political aspect of the Messiah. The Jews anticipated a political triumph that would then be justified be morality. This morality was embedded in the moral advancement that the universe would experience in the coming of the Messiah. In forming this kind of expectation, I believe that the Jews painted an idealistic view on the Messiah. The Jews were expecting a leader born in an influential family and one who was wealthy. In my opinion, these perspectives were what made the Messiah to be rejected when He dwelt on earth. I feel that the expectations of the coming Messiah were focused on the physical change that would be marked in his coming. In my opinion, Messianism signifies a period of Spiritual change and that the second coming of t he Messiah will bring about spiritual freedom. Section D I believe that the Sabbath is a day that is dedicated to the worship of God. I know that it is believed that worship should be an everyday affair, but the Sabbath is one day of the week where you isolate yourself and focus on activities that bring give God glory. These activities are like assembling with others to sing hymns, pray and fellowship. I know that the Sabbath is manÃ¢â¬â¢s way of emulating GodÃ¢â¬â¢s rest after the six days of creation. I feel that individuals should take a rest from the normal activities and focus on showing God gratitude to God for His kindness. These normal activities are like carrying out oneÃ¢â¬â¢s occupational duties, and going to school.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
HIV Uses Trojan Horse Method to Infect Cells Like all viruses, HIV is not able to reproduce or express its genes without the help of a living cell. First, the virus must be able to successfully infect a cell. To do so, HIV uses a veil of human proteins in a Trojan horse manner to infect immune cells. To go from cell to cell, HIV is packaged in an envelope or capsid made from viral proteins and proteins from human cell membranes. Like the Ebola virus, HIV relies on proteins from human cell membranes to gain entrance into a cell. In fact, Johns Hopkins scientists have identified 25 human proteins that have been incorporated into the HIV-1 virus and aid its ability to infect other body cells. Once inside a cell, HIV uses the cells ribosomes and other components to make viral proteins and to replicate. When new virus particles are formed, they emerge from the infected cell cloaked in a membrane and proteins from the infected cell. This helps the virus particles avoid immune system detection. What Is HIV? HIV is the virus that causes the disease known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. HIV destroys cells of the immune system, making an individual infected with the virus less equipped to fight off infection. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), this virus may be transmitted when infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions come in contact with an uninfected persons broken skin or mucous membranes. There are two types of HIV, HIV-1, and HIV-2. HIV-1 infections have mostly occurred in the United States and Europe, while HIV-2 infections are more prominent in West Africa. How HIV Destroys Immune Cells While HIV may infect different cells throughout the body, it attacks white blood cells called T cell lymphocytes and macrophages in particular. HIV destroys T cells by triggering a signal that results in T cell death. When HIV replicates within a cell, viral genes get inserted into the genes of the host cell. Once HIV integrates its genes into T cell DNA, an enzyme (DNA-PK) uncharacteristically sets off a sequence that leads to the death of the T cell. The virus thereby destroys the cells that play a major role in the bodys defense against infectious agents. Unlike T cell infection, HIV infection of macrophages is less likely to lead to macrophage cell death. As a result, infected macrophages produce HIV particles for a longer period of time. Since macrophages are found in every organ system, they can transport the virus to various sites in the body. HIV-infected macrophages may also destroy T cells by releasing toxins that cause nearby T cells to undergo apoptosis or programmed cell death. Engineering HIV-Resistant Cells Scientists are attempting to develop new methods for fighting HIV and AIDS. Stanford University School of Medicine researchers has genetically engineered T cells to be resistant to HIV infection. They accomplished this by inserting HIV-resistant genes into the T-cell genome. These genes successfully blocked the entry of the virus into the altered T cells. According to researcher Matthew Porteus, We inactivated one of the receptors that HIV uses to gain entry and added new genes to protect against HIV, so we have multiple layers of protection what we call stacking. We can use this strategy to make cells that are resistant to both major types of HIV. If it is shown that this approach to treating HIV infection could be used as a new type of gene therapy, this method could potentially replace current drug therapy treatment. This type of gene therapy would not cure HIV infectionÃ but would provide a source of resistant T cells that could stabilize the immune system and prevent the deve lopment of AIDS. Sources: NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Scientists discover how HIV kills immune cells; Findings have implications for HIV treatment. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 June 2013. (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130605144435.htm).Herbein G. and Kumar A. The macrophage: a therapeutic target in HIV-1 infection. Molecular and Cellular Therapies. Published 2 April 2014. (molcelltherapies.com/content/2/1/10).Stanford University Medical Center. Immune cells engineered in lab to resist HIV infection, study shows. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 January 2013. (sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130122101903.htm).
Friday, February 14, 2020
Service Request - HR Systems - Essay Example The information gathered from this group of stakeholders is highly imperative since they act as the core connection to all other members of the company (Stellman & Greene, 2008). Information gathering is a very vital stage in ensuring that the Human Resource system is a success as it acts as the focal point to capturing the right set of information expected to deliver the precise functional requirements for the system. In order to achieve this, the following set of information gathering techniques are proposed for the project. Firstly, Interviewing, a process that employs both one on one and team based data capture from the expected users of the system will provide a wide set of relevant information for the project. Secondly, the Joint Application Development method that utilizes conduction of workshops with the key stakeholders of the system will ensure that the stakeholders are willing and motivated to providing relevant information. ... the system and then testing it against the expected functionalities guarantees that all important information regarding system functionality is captured and put into proper use in the system (Stellman & Greene, 2008). Since the ability of information to satisfy its targeted users to the highest degree lies on information analysis, the following data analysis tools are proposed for the project. The Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) is a data analysis tool that is highly significant in performing a thorough analysis of statistical information gathered. Thus, the SPSS perfectly fits for this project, as it will provide well-organized information about the services to be offered by the system. In addition, the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) is further proposed since it can play an important role in aiding programmers with information retrieval from existing software, data management and quality improvement (Stellman & Greene, 2008). Thus, the above proposed data analysi s tools are very essential in making sure that the information gathered is precisely analyzed with emphasis laid on meeting the user requirements. As aforementioned, information gathering is a key determinant of the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s success. That is, it aids in clarifying the set of both functional and non-functional requirements for the Human Resource system. When the right information as regards to the expected functionality of a system is gathered, it provides great room for the system to function as expected by its targeted users (Stellman & Greene, 2008). In this sense, the following factors act as the driving ends to ensuring that the information required for the project is successfully gathered. Planning is a very crucial factor in information gathering (Stellman & Greene, 2008). It aids